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Roundels and Orilons of the castles

Roundels and Orilons
There was also such an early element of the European bastion structure as a rondeli in pre-Peter Russia. So, in the Yamgorod fortress, they were before the re-planning of Peter the beginning of the 18th century: this was recorded on several Swedish plans from the Military Archive of Sweden. On the image of the Moscow Kremlin (Kremlin Kremlin), dating back to about 1600, we see that the Spasskaya and Nikolskaya towers are surrounded by gondolas that are lined with bricks, provided with battlements and protect the gates that were erected before the beginning of the 17th century.
By the early period of the development of the bastion fortification, by the time of the appearance of the first bastion forms - Rondela - Korela's bastions on the Zamkovoy and Spassky Islands also belong (the end of the 16th century - the first half of the 17th century). They are archaic in structure, have an irregular shape, their size and area are small, which is especially noticeable on the background of long curtains. On the Swedish plans, two buildings were designated as rondels adjacent to a stone fortress — Calla Rndeel (Fish) and Cotta Rndeel (Living). They were rather archaic, did not constitute a united front of defense, and were located on opposite sides of a stone fortress.

The bastions of the Spassky Island are typologically similar to the earthworks of the mid-16th century. Zavolochya (1536), Polotsk, Starodub. Roundels or bulk earthen structures of round shape could be used at a later time. So, they are shown on several early drawings of Shlisselburg, including the one that he developed at the beginning of the 18th century. Peter I himself. On the schematic drawing of Peter I13 and on the early design plans of Shlisselburg 14, along with modern bastions, several outdated stone towers are seen, reinforced with earth mounds of the type of rudelles. To spell out the fortress in detail, find out where it will stay in St. Petersburg. Elements of the French Vauban system (its so-called “simple system”) are viewed on several drawings of Novgorod the Great Peter's time. This is the “Plan of the Novgorod fortress on the bank of the r. Volkhov "15 and the above-mentioned" Plan of Novgorod on the bank of the Volkhov River "16. A distinctive feature of the simple Vauban system was the presence of orilons and the absence of longline flanks — the flanks were designed in a straight line or concave manner. Here and on the “Plan of the Novgorod Fortress on the bank of the r. Volkhov's “flanks are not long-lined (like the French fortifier Pagan or earlier Italian architects), they are perpendicular to the curtain. And on the "Plan of Novgorod on the banks of the river. Volkhov "bastions have orilons. The French fortification system (only not simple, but one of the “reinforced” systems of Vauban) also corresponds to the concave flanks with orilons shown on the Novgorod plan of 1701, reduits on bastions, and kuvet (it is shown on the profile). The presence on this plan of a mining ship - a Dutch invention - does not contradict the above: the mining works were actively used in different countries, their drawings are also found in Voban's treatise “A Direct Way to Strengthen Cities” and the architecture and defence of the Spanish castles.
In general, the design for the bastion fortress corresponds to the French design drawing of Yamburg from the Collection of Foreign Manuscripts of Peter I17. Two bastions can be attributed to the French type on the design drawing of Shlisselburg made by Peter I18. Gosudarev and Golovin bastions were supposed to be closer to the French or Old Italian fortification system, and the other two were closer to the Dutch.
Thus, the analysis of the space-planning structure of the bastion fortresses of north-west Russia of the end of the XVI - beginning of the XVIII centuries. leads to the conclusion that the bastions were built in accordance with the advanced European technologies of the time - Italian and French (in most cases) or the Dutch. In some cases, they were built, apparently, by invited foreign military engineers. In others - by local craftsmen, in whom European technologies lay on a local basis.

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