Roundels and Orilons
There was also such an early element of the European bastion structure as a rondeli in pre-Peter Russia. So, in the Yamgorod fortress, they were before the re-planning of Peter the beginning of the 18th century: this was recorded on several Swedish plans from the Military Archive of Sweden. On the image of the Moscow Kremlin (Kremlin Kremlin), dating back to about 1600, we see that the Spasskaya and Nikolskaya towers are surrounded by gondolas that are lined with bricks, provided with battlements and protect the gates that were erected before the beginning of the 17th century.
By the early period of the development of the bastion fortification, by the time of the appearance of the first bastion forms - Rondela - Korela's bastions on the Zamkovoy and Spassky Islands also belong (the end of the 16th century - the first half of the 17th century). They are archaic in structure, have an irregular shape, their size and area are small, which is especially noticeable on the background of long curtains. On the Swedish plans, two buildings were designated as rondels adjacent to a stone fortress — Calla Rndeel (Fish) and Cotta Rndeel (Living). They were rather archaic, did not constitute a united front of defense, and were located on opposite sides of a stone fortress.
In general, the design for the bastion fortress corresponds to the French design drawing of Yamburg from the Collection of Foreign Manuscripts of Peter I17. Two bastions can be attributed to the French type on the design drawing of Shlisselburg made by Peter I18. Gosudarev and Golovin bastions were supposed to be closer to the French or Old Italian fortification system, and the other two were closer to the Dutch.
Thus, the analysis of the space-planning structure of the bastion fortresses of north-west Russia of the end of the XVI - beginning of the XVIII centuries. leads to the conclusion that the bastions were built in accordance with the advanced European technologies of the time - Italian and French (in most cases) or the Dutch. In some cases, they were built, apparently, by invited foreign military engineers. In others - by local craftsmen, in whom European technologies lay on a local basis.