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A special feature of the bastion front of the Small Earthen city of Novgorod the Great is the special construction of the bastions - the presence of the orilons so characteristic of the Old Italian fortification

A special feature of the bastion front of the Small Earthen city of Novgorod the Great is the special construction of the bastions - the presence of the orilons so characteristic of the Old Italian fortification ("this kind of bastions were also called bastille, boulevardi, turions, and the Germans had the bolwerks" 4). As in the early Old Italian bastions, their flanks are perpendicular to the long curtain. On the Sofia side, the bastions are very similar in layout to the old Italian bastion fortresses 5 of that time. For example, the architect Buontalenti T erra del Sole, the Sabbionet fortress of the architect Girolamo Cataneo, the fortress of the architect Vincenzo Scamozzi Palmanova of the late 16th century, with the designs of the ideal cities of Pietro Cataneo and Giorgio Vasari of the middle - second half of the 16th century. Lithuanian and Sweden. For example, with the bastion buildings of the castle in Zaslavl, built, in the opinion of K. Tyszkiewicz and R. Ignatiev, in the middle of the 16th century, the Radziwills castle in the World of the beginning of the 17th centuries, fortified with 17th Century Biyev and Bykhov in the first half of the 17th century, with the Radzivils bastion fortress in Lithuanian Birzai (Birzha) 1586 - 1589 biennium.

9, Vyborg bastion fortifications of the mid XVI century. 10 Bastion and Neyport gates (New) and bastion and The Wassenport gate (Water) of the stone town of Vyborg is similar to the fortifications depicted on the many plans of the Small Earthen town, especially with bastions with gondolas visible on the 1611 plan and the “Novgorod Plan on the bank of the r. Volkhov "beginning of the XVIII century. 11Italian fortifiers were then considered among the best engineers in Europe. And it seems quite plausible the statement of Anthony Possevino that the construction of the first fortifications of the Small Earthen city in Novgorod was led by an Italian architect12. If the similarity of the bastion structure of the Small Earthen town with the old Italian samples is caused only by the origin of the author of the project, then how distinctive was the development of the bastion structure in north-west Russia?
Unlike the Small Earthen city of Novgorod, the bastions of the Staroladozhsky tree-earthen fortress (“diversion bulls”) that were contemporary to him had a different planned structure. They are close to the Old Dutch bastion system, which appeared and spread in Europe in the 1570s - 1580s, during the Netherlands' struggle for independence. Like Old Dutch, the Ladoga bastions are elongated, and the curtains between them are shortened. The bastion front of the fortress is built along the inside line of the landfill, the defensive lines fall on the curtain, not on its corner; It was distributed in the XVI - the first half of the XVII century. and it corresponds exactly to the Old Dutch bastion system and best French castles architecture.
However, the Ladoga Bastion Fortress in its planned structure differed, for example, from the bastion fortress built in 1632 - 1634. Dutch military engineer Jan Cornelius van Rodenburg in Rostov. The bastions of the Rostov fortress are larger and wider, the flanks are perpendicular to the clumps, the dry moat alternates with water, there is also an additional lowered shaft so characteristic of the Dutch fortification.
A special feature of the Novgorod and Ladoga bastion fortresses is a combination of European and local traditions of defense architecture. Local tradition can be understood as erection on bastions after the Troubles of the early 17th century. and the Swedish intervention of wooden walls, chopped "taras" (in the form of log cabins, filled with earth and stones), and towers; this did not correspond to European fortification principles, but it was customary and traditional for Russian fortification and remained in it throughout the 17th century. It should be emphasized that in both cases the wooden structures on the bastions were not erected immediately, but some time later. Both bastions were originally built in accordance with the European idea of the bastion front with a defense that was open from above, without any wooden structures at the top.

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