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The town of Tremp is the head and home of both the municipality of the same name as well as the county of Pallars Jussà, the judicial party of Tremp and the archpriest homonymous, belonging to the bishopric of Urgell. The territory of the town of Tremp presently constitutes an enclave of its municipality, separated from the rest by the territory of Talarn.

The etymology of the name “Tremp” has been controversial and full of doubts. At least until now, there is no single etymological explanation accepted by all specialists in the subject. Joan Coromines devotes a long article to try to bring light on the origin of the name of the Pallars capital. He discards entry that the origin is the Latin word templum, and, instead, opts for a non-Indo-European root of an itatic origin brought here by the first Indo-European colonizers, the sorotaptes that had been on Venetoligian soil before reaching the current Catalan speaking territories. Coromines also postulates that it goes before the denonym, trempolins instead of the name of the city Tremp, and that in this case it would be the other way round to what is common: the name of the city would refer to the name of its settlers.

In the false act of consecration of the Seu d’Urgell, attributed to the year 819, there is already the inscription that says Trimplo. In the later documents where the name of the city appears, it is already mentioned in the current form.

The village of Tremp, which became a city on May 27, 1884, has a very small, modernized area, the city grows, at the expense of parts of the Talarn district, as has been said before.

The medieval town had been formed in the territory of the canonical, antic head-dean of Santa Maria de Tremp or Valldeflors, and it consisted of streets with clear medieval layout, surrounded by walls, that Pascual Madoz had seen and described in its Geographical Dictionary from 1845.

However, it must be said that in many moments of history, the role of capital had to be disputed with Talarn. Talarn, however, always had a more political and military role, linked to the old Order of Susterris, while Tremp acted more as a civil and commercial city.

The old town was formed by two cross-shaped streets (Soldevila-Capdevila and Peressall) that are located in a small square, and even smaller, irregular streets that fill the four quarters in to which the city is divided. The street of Peressall runs from east to west; At the far east there was the gate of Peressall, demolished in 1915; the streets of Capdevila and Soldevila, which are a continuity of each other, make it from north to south. At noon is called Soldevila street, as it slopes slightly towards the lower part: the sun of the town; Towards north, it is the street of Capdevila, which rises slightly towards the highest: the head of the town. At the end of the street of Soldevila there was another entryway, which disappeared in 1903.

At the top of the street of Capdevila there was also a portal, and in Carrer de Sant Roc – continuing towards the west outer walls of Peressall – a fourth entrance to the town.

The urban layout, with two crossed streets forming four approximately equal parts, recalls the distribution of a Roman military camp. It is one of the hypotheses confronted when it comes to explaining the birth of Tremp; There are no archaeological vestiges that can corroborate it, for now, but it remains a plausible hypothesis. In the southwest quarter of the town market was celebrated, in the square that received the name of the Mercadal. With the growth of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, when the walls and portals of the town were destroyed, this Mercadal square was converted into a street, with an exit for the south. It became the widest street in Tremp’s old town.

At the northeast corner of the village’s enclosure was the parish church, formerly canonical of Santa Maria de Valldeflors de Tremp.

chernowa155 Чернова Лиза 22 фев, 15:43
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Vic is the capital of the Osona region, in northeastern Catalonia. Its geographical location, 70 kilometers from Barcelona and 65 from Girona, has made it one of the capitals of the interior Catalonia. It has a population is of 48,287 inhabitants (2018).

The name of this town was written for centuries with the Vich form, according to traditional spelling. Since the beginning of the 80’s, the official form is “Vic”, in application of the Orthographic Norms of the Institute of Catalan Studies. The spelling with final “h” remains in the surname Vich, and also it is the one that has the homonymous town of Arpitania.

Tourism attractions, architecture and what to see?

The Plaça Major with a Live Music Market venue

It is a city worth visiting, because it has one of the most suggestive medieval ensembles in Catalonia, which was voted one of the seven wonders of Catalonia in 2007. The center of the old town is Plaça del Mercadal or Plaça Major, where several modernist buildings, arcades and towers stand out. The Episcopal Museum of Vic has one of the best collections of Medieval Catalan Art and is declared a museum of national interest by the Generalitat of Catalonia.

Two of Vic’s most important monuments are:

● The Cathedral of Vic
● The Roman Temple of Vic

It’s argued which was the first cathedral church in Vic, St. Peter the Apostle or Santa Maria la Rodona. For centuries, the bishops celebrated the first Christmas Mass at Santa Maria, and the third, in Sant Pere. The very old church of Santa Maria, was reconstructed from the foundations by the canon Guillem Bonfil in 1140, and was consecrated after forty years by the bishop Pere de Redorta. He was assigned there in 1787 to make room for the new cathedral.

chernowa155 Чернова Лиза 16 фев, 14:26
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Els Prats de Rei

The city of Els Prats de Rei

The municipality of Prats de Rei, 32.76 km: of extension, with altitudes that oscillate between 600 and 700 m above sea level, is located on the Segarrencs plateaus of the Anoia region, in one end of the Central Depression and in the center of a small valley formed by the young river Anoia, beginning its descent into the basin of the Conca d’Òdena.

The municipal territory is of capricious and irregular forms, it is bordered by municipalities of Calaf, Sant Martí de Sesgueioles, Pujalt, Veciana, Sant Pere Sallavinera, Aguilar de Segarra and Rubió. The strange form of the district boundaries is due to the annexations of ancient quarters, districts and jurisdictions, and to privileges granted in very past times.

The municipality is formed by the Prats de Rei town, located in the center of the municipality, and by the urban centers and villages of La Manresa, Solanelles, Puigdemàger, Seguers and Quadra del Galí.

The economy nowadays is very diversified. It has gone from a quasi-total predominance of agriculture to a quite significant distribution in other industrial, commercial, service sectors, etc. In the village there are small industries of clothing, carpentry, sawmill, metallurgy, flour milling.

In commerce there has been a significant decline in recent years. Stores have been closed until they reach the current situation: three grocery stores – two of which are also bakeries – and a large area dedicated to the sale of clothes. There are also farms of pigs and rabbits.

About 60% of the land is devoted to the cultivation of dry land grains, mainly wheat and barley, although it is currently being experimented with other seeds such as rapeseed. Years ago, before the phylloxera destroyed the vineyards, wine production was quite important. Almost all farmers had planted vines. The local people still refer to their parcels of land commonly as “the vineyard” and many houses still hold a cellar and a winery. Recently, some young entrepreneurs have pushed the return of the vineyard to the area.

chernowa155 Чернова Лиза 16 фев, 12:16
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Manresa is a municipality and a city of Catalonia, capital of the county of Bages and central Catalonia. It is located in the Pla de Bages, near the corner where the Llobregat and Cardener rivers converge. With a population of 76,250 inhabitants in 2018, it is the most populated city of Bages and Central Catalonia. It is 65 km north of Barcelona, and marks the boundary between the industrial area around Barcelona and the rural area of the north.

The city forms a very important communications hub, accentuated by the Llobregat axis and the transverse axis, between the mountains and the sea, between the interior plains of Urgell and La Segarra and the eastern regions of the country. Regarding the economy, Manresa stands out in the textile, chemical and machinery industry, although in the last decades it has replaced the industry by the commerce. The city also stands out because of its medieval complex, with bridges over the Cardener River and its Gothic cathedral. In addition, in this city there are also baroque-style churches, as well as interesting modernist buildings.

During the French war, the Manresa subject was defeated by the French troops at El Coll del Bruc (June 1808), although the French, already in retreat, burned and demolished much of the city. After the expulsion of the Napoleonic troops, the Manresans rebuilt the city from the debris.

Main travel sights, architecture and waht to do?

The history of Manresa is marked by the different periods that the city has experienced. A legacy that today is explained through several hidden corners of history, such as Modernist buildings, medieval streets and Baroque houses.

Among all the interesting heritage and tourist attractions that the city has to offer, we present you the most outstanding places and monuments.

La Seu de Manresa is the main Manresa monument

The gothic church that we can contemplate today was designed by Berenguer de Montagut, who also designed works as important as Santa Maria del Mar in Barcelona. The architectural conception is characteristic of the Catalan Gothic: austerity in the decoration and predominance of the horizontal volumes, with a large nave width. The works began in 1325, but until the end of the 15th century the temple was not finished. The main façade is Neogothic, designed by Alexandre Soler i March and advised by Antoni Gaudí.

chernowa155 Чернова Лиза 14 фев, 11:19
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Castles of Spain: Castellvell in Solsona, Catalonia, Pyrenees

Castellvell (Castellvell de Solsona) is a castle located on top of a hill of 838 meters with the same name in the municipality of Olius in the Solsona district, three kilometers from the city of Solsona (Lleida, Catalonia).
The building dates back to the 11th century. This is one of the most important military fortifications and watchtowers in the north-west of the city of Solsona. This architectural monument was declared a cultural object of national importance in Catalonia.
The construction of the castle began on the order of Count Sunyer d’Urgell in 957. In 973, Earl Borrell II of Barcelona strengthened it as a military citadel to ensure the defense of the area. In the 11th century, Lord of Solsona Ecard Miró continued to strengthen the castle. The construction was completed (after his death) by the descendants Bernat and Ramon de Tarroja in 1217. The construction was completed when the heir of the Tarroch family, Agnes, married the viscount of Cardona, Ramon Folc IV de Cardona (1180-23 August 1241).
From the Romanesque period, a three-apse and west facing church remained in the complex, which corresponds to the parish church of Salsona San Miquel de Castellvell.
In the castle there is also a sample of the Romanesque chapel, but in the XV century the chapel was rebuilt in the Gothic style.

chernowa155 Чернова Лиза 11 дек 18, 17:09
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Port Leucate

Mediterranean resorts of France (amethyst coast): Port Leucate – the cheapest oysters in France and the center of European land windsurfing
Leucate (fr. Leucate) – a commune in France, which belongs to the region Languedoc-Roussillon. Department of the Commune – Aude. Included in the canton Les Corbières Méditerranée. District of the commune – the city of Narbonne. The population of Leucate in 2017 was 3,954 people.
This seaside resort is located on the coastal strip separating Leucate pond from the golfe du Lion Bay, in the immediate vicinity of the marine Corbières (les Corbières maritimes), which are located in the east and differ from the rest of the Corbières by having a mild climate and plenty of thermal Mediterranean vegetation.
The port of Leucate can be reached via the D83 south of Barcares (Barcarès) or via the D627 from the village of Leucate (Leucate) to the north.
The creation of the port of Leucate is the result of the development of the coastal region of Languedoc-Roussillon. The chief architect of the city is Georges Candilis. The port is part of the tourist site of Lacattes-le Barcares (or Port Leucate-Port Barcarès), built as part of the Racine1 mission.
France’s interministerial mission for the development of tourism on the coast of Languedoc-Roussillon, also known as the Racine mission, is in honor of Pierre Racine, its leader. The mission was established on June 18, 1963 by the state to carry out major infrastructural work to develop the Mediterranean coast in the departments of Gard, l’Hérault, l’Aude and Pyrénées-Orientales — in other words, along the amethyst coast (côte d’Améthyste).
The mission involved the development of the city and its transformation. Lawns, lighted fountains, palm trees, walking and cycling paths appeared.
Port Leucate is the old part of the resort area, which began to attract tourists even before the First World War at the beginning of the 20th century.
The port itself is located south of Corrège Island on the northern border of Port Barcares. Island Korrezh or the island of birds – covers about 150 hectares of land. It is connected to the land by two bridges on the D627 – in one direction the road leads to the water park, and in the other to the city of Leucate.
In the port of Leucate, 1100 boats can fit in the water and 350 boats on the parking spaces on land. Useful information: the price to park boats ranges from 750 to 6,000 euros per year (depending on the size of the boat).
Tourism is the main activity of the port of Leucate, with more than 60,000 people visiting per year. The types of accommodation offered are mainly campgrounds, hotels and apartments. Part of the resort (5 of 45 hectares) is the nudist village of l’Île de La Corrège. It was created in 1974, as part of the same Racine1 mission. The village has its own pier.
Right on the Mediterranean coast is the resort area of the Rives des Corbières hotel, which is located 150 meters from the beach of Leucate.
Shopping, cuisine and restaurants:
One of the attractions that you must visit is the shellfish port. It is located south of Leucate-Plage and north of the nudist village. Here you can come across the oyster farmers who grow oysters, mussels, clams and even king prawns. On this land, nature has arranged itself so that the most favorable conditions for the growth of oysters were created: a narrow strip of the beach separates the Mediterranean Sea from the freshwater lake. It is this composition of water – a combination of fresh and sea water – that affect the quality of oyster meat.
However, on this farm, oysters do not multiply, they are brought here when small from Kankal. In any case, the prices for oysters here at the local farm are among the lowest in France.

chernowa155 Чернова Лиза 5 дек 18, 16:21
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Languedoc and Occitania: their history and major tourist attractions

Languedoc and Occitania: their history and major tourist attractions
Languedoc (French version – Languedoc, Occitan version – Lengadòc) is the so-called “historical” region in the south of France. The population of this region traditionally did not speak French, but Occitan. Languedoc is part of Occitania, the center of which, in turn, is the city of Toulouse. The population of Languedoc currently stands at 3.6 million.
The name Languedoc began to be used from the XIII century when, in 1271, the county of Toulouse fell under the French crown’s possession.
Until 1790, Languedoc had the official status of a province. Currently there are two regions on its territory – Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées (departments Aude, Tarn, Herault, Gard, Ardèche, Lozère, Haute-Garonne, Tarn and Garonne, Haute-Loire) . Languedoc occupies an area of about 42.7 thousand square meters, however, there are disagreements regarding the exact borders of the former province.
Today, Languedoc is one of the centers of tourism. It attracts tourists for its mountain peaks, green hills, ancient castles, vineyards and blue lagoons. About 800 years ago, this area was called the land of the Cathars, against which the Vatican declared a crusade. After all, the religious movement of the Cathars was the only opponent of the Catholic Church in Europe at that time.
The history of Languedoc and Occitania
The peculiarities of Languedoc include the fact that its inhabitants managed to preserve their language. In 1539, French became the official language in France. As a result, in all regions of the kingdom, local dialects began to die off. Only the people of Languedoc were able to save their language. Nowadays, about 8 million people speak Occitan. Well, tourists may notice that in Toulouse street names are written in French and Occitan. Therefore, Languedoc is often called the “other” France. After all, the locals consider themselves to be Languedoc, not French.
In these regions, a fairly powerful county of Toulouse existed in the past, which controlled all trade routes in the south of France. The highest flowering of the county fell on the XII century. Interestingly, the inhabitants of the county enjoyed great freedom. In addition, there were many free cities. The capital of the county was a city of Toulouse.
The locals quickly accepted the Cathar religion, which did not frighten them with prospects of going to hell. In addition, the Cathars did not recognize indulgences. They also treated people for free. Therefore, against the background of the heavily wealthy Catholic priests, they looked righteous.
The massive transition of locals to the Cathar religion led to the fact that in 1209 a crusade against Toulouse county was declared. It should be noted that the county repelled the attacks of the Crusaders for as long as 20 years. But in 1229, France seized part of the lands of the county. And in 1271 all the lands of the county were annexed to France. As a result, the county became the French province of Languedoc.
Former Occitania has an original intellectual climate, due to the proximity of Arabic Spain and the movement of the Cathars (Albigensians). It was here that troubadours were born and real knights lived. The Cathars (they are Albigensians) appeared at the beginning of the XI century. They believed that the materialism that conquered the Catholic Church should not flourish. They preached abstinence and asceticism, and were the forerunners of Protestantism. Then, in the XVI-XVII centuries, the Huguenots appeared not somewhere, but again here, in the kingdom of Navarre. In both cases, the heresies enjoyed the support of local authorities, and so Paris and the Vatican reacted harshly.
At the beginning of the XIII century, the Albigensians declared a crusade, conducted with all possible cruelty. Of course, it was not their ideology that was the cause, but the desire to profit from the wealth of the southern lands. The south was well fed, the yard prosperous, and the Albigensians were just an excuse as was the case for King Philip II. Pope Innocent III tried to negotiate with the Cathars, and was sent there as the main negotiator of those times – the Spaniard Guzman. But he could not do anything as Toulouse just laughed at him. Earl Raymond refused to take any measures against the Cathars, as he himself was almost a catarrh. Languedoc just did not want to talk to the Vatican. In 1208, the papal legate was killed in Toulouse, and this caused a crusade.
During the heyday of the county, almost all French musicians and poets lived here. After all, the French kingdom in those years experienced severe economic difficulties. Therefore, in the XII century, Toulouse became the intellectual and creative center of Europe. It regularly held poetry tournaments.
The army of Simon de Montfort passed through Occitania with fire and sword. The war lasted for more than thirty years, and the Cathars eventually fell. An indicative moment is that after the defeat of the Cathars in the middle of the 13th century, the surviving heretics moved into the Templar Order, which, in turn, was also defeated by the French king at the beginning of the 14th century. Isolated communities of the Cathars continued to exist for almost 100 years, but they lost their influence. The last known Qatar to the world was burned in 1321. The Huguenot movement also relied on the south.
In the XVI-XVIII centuries, many communes lived here independently and following their own laws. But they failed to resist the power of the absolutism of Louis XIV. This was the second global subordination of the south to the north and the final formation of a united France. Occitania remained only in the legends. Now Occitania under the name of the region of the South – the Pyrenees and Languedoc-Roussillon – is developing quite dynamically, relying on high-tech production. In many of its corners, however, typical medieval coziness and ecological cleanliness have been preserved.
Tourism in the Languedoc and what to see
This is a region of intellectual and rather individual tourism. It is recommended for people who love rustic tranquility, visiting castles and walking in the mountains.

chernowa155 Чернова Лиза 1 дек 18, 18:25
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Montesquieu Castle

Montesquiu (cat. Montesquiu) is a municipality in Osona, in Catalonia, Spain. It is located on the banks of the river Ter in the north of the region. The municipality is located on the main route (C17-N260) between Barcelona and Puigcerda.
The main tourist attraction of the municipality is the 13th century Montesquieu castle. It is open to the public, and in the summer many cultural events are held there.
Montesquieu Castle first appeared in documents dating back to 1285, when it was part of a defensive triangle that included the medieval castles of Besor and Saderra.
The transformation from the defensive complex to the Montesquieu castle took place in the 14th century when the regional governor moved here from Besora.
Over the next few centuries, the castle underwent several structural changes. Its owners have expanded the living space. They also added a small chapel set aside for Saint Barbara.
The Provincial Council of Barcelona acquired the castle in 1976.
Today the castle is the central element of the park that bears its name. In the park around the castle are two pedestrian routes: three and eight-kilometers long.
Montesquieu Castle is an amazing and beautiful place. It creates an impression of solitude, retreat, and sometimes loneliness.
The gothic staircase, due to the glass ceilings above and large windows, is the brightest place in the castle. The penetrating rays of the sun add warmth and comfort to the interior of this seemingly harsh stone structure. Darkness cannot rule here until the sun shines.

chernowa155 Чернова Лиза 1 дек 18, 18:24
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Cardona (cat. Cardona) is a city and municipality in Spain, included in the province of Barcelona as part of the autonomous community of Catalonia. The municipality is part of the Bajes district. It covers an area of 66.70 km². It had a population of 5182 people in 2010.
Cardona is located in the valley of Salina. Salina Valley (La Vall Salina) is a place where natural salt layers have formed over several million years. The mountain range has the shape of an elongated ellipse. The massif borders the Cardener River in the east, the Tresserres mountain range (Tresserres) in the south, Gran Bofia (la Bòfia Gran) in the west and the Sierra (the city itself and Cardona Castle) in the north. In total, the valley area encompasses 100 hectares. The whole territory is included in the State Plan of Natural Interests of Catalonia (el Pla d’Espais d’Interès Natural de Catalunya).
Mining has long been a crucial part of the location of the city and the castle of Cardona. The exploitation of salt deposits and the establishment of the viscountcy Osona (vescomtal d’Osona) in the castle led to the fact that Cardona Castle and the city created a powerful jurisdiction in the Cardenar River region between the 12th and 14th centuries. By the 15th century, the power of Cardona extended over a vast territory about 60 km long and about 50 km wide. Read more about the history of the region here.
Tourism and attractions in Cardona
Today Cardona with a population of 5,000 is one of the tourist centers of Catalonia. Every year more than half a million tourists visit the city, mainly from Spain and France.
Among the main attractions is the Castle of Cardona (El Castell i la Colo • legiata de Sant Vicenç).
Since ancient times, man has sought places on high ground to build fortresses that would allow him to control a territory. In Cardona, the geographical location of the castle corresponds to the need to protect access to the salt deposit and control over the valley of the Cardener River.
Built on top of a mountain to control the land around the Cardener River Basin, Cardona Castle was from the 11th to the 15th century the main residence of the Lords of Cardona. The castle complex is divided in half between the majestic pavilions and the canonical Romanesque chapel of Sant Vicenç. The architectural complex includes the Tower of Minion (Torre de la Minyona), the Ducal Palace (Pati Ducal), and numerous defensive bastions.
Cardona Castle is an excellent example of military fortification, which shows the evolution of military art from the Middle Ages to the modern era. The castle was home to one of the country’s most important noble families, and protecting the exploitation of salt mines meant that its fortification was impregnable. The power of the castle as a military fortification is proved by the fact that the castle was taken only once during the war for the succession of the Spanish king, Felipe 5 (1711-1714).
The chapel of Sant Vicenç is original, dating from the 11th century, and was consecrated between about 1029 and 1040. This is a magnificent example of Romanesque architecture which has a three-nave basilica plan. In the chapel there are also several tombs and pantheons belonging, in particular, to Duke Ferran I and Count Joan Ramon Folt I.
Currently, the castle is a four-star hotel, restaurant and cafe with a great view over the valley.
The castle is open to the public; however, guided tours are possible only on Saturdays and Sundays (tel. 93 869 24 75).
Among the museums of Cardona is the medieval center (Center Cardona Medieval) – another attraction of the city. Located on the Plaza de la Fira (plaça de la Fira), opposite the Cardona Town Hall, this center helps to highlight the city’s history and cultural heritage. The permanent exhibition with extensive graphic and audiovisual accompaniment explains the emergence and evolution of the city, and the construction of the fortress of Cardona, which has defended the city for over five hundred years.
A virtual tour offers a visit through the most significant historical sites, including visiting the parish church of San Miquel with its magnificent Gothic nave. The Church of Sant Miquel is an example of Catalan Gothic architecture. The church was consecrated in 1397. Inside the temple there are two side altars and crypts of holy martyrs.

chernowa155 Чернова Лиза 1 дек 18, 18:23
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Mediterranean resorts of France: Collioure – a place of inspiration for Picasso, Matisse, Dali

Mediterranean resorts of France: Collioure (fr. Collioure)
Collioure is an old fishing town in France, which has long been famous for its anchovies. It is an ideal holiday destination for tourists who are tired of the mad rhythm of excursions and a large crowd of people. The population is only about 3,000 inhabitants. The resort is located on the Mediterranean coast Vermilion (Vermilion). The cities of France, Collioure and Perpignan, are called the pearls of the French Purple (or Scarlet) coast. They are rightly recognized as the most picturesque towns of the south of France.
Collioure attracts visitors with its clean beaches, quiet coves, sunny weather and the green hills of the Pyrenees. A walk along the embankment contains beautiful views or through the picturesque narrow paved streets will allow you to fully experience the medieval atmosphere of the city. Collioure is also called the city of artists. Many artists such as Picasso, Matisse, Dali, Derain found inspiration for their work here.
Architecture, Collioure sights, what to see?
The embankment of the city is a great place to walk with small cozy restaurants and cafes alongside, souvenir shops and beautiful views. It is a favorite meeting place for the local youths.
Notre-Dame des Anges is the calling card of the city, thanks to the works of Matisse. This church became famous throughout the world. It has been preserved in excellent condition to the present day. This building, which was built in 1691, is one of the symbols of Collioure. The church is located in the sea harbor of Collioure. Initially (the end of the XVII century) it worked as a lighthouse, but later on the order of Marshal of France Vauban, this function was abolished.
The Royal Castle of the Templars is a powerful naval complex with a whole system of underground communications, which are still used by the French military today (it’s still used or not?). Now there is also a museum. Erected in the VII century, the citadel served as the city’s defense mechanism and its suburbs for many centuries, so it was constantly improved and strengthened, until the XVII century.
The “colored streets” is an area with narrow, labyrinth-like lanes and ancient stairs. The atmosphere here is always joyful and warm. Balconies are decorated with a huge number of multi-colored flowerpots, and the facades are covered with grapes and ivy.

chernowa155 Чернова Лиза 1 дек 18, 18:21
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