The third area is associated with the use of information methods in linguistics, biology, psychology, sociology, pedagogy, etc

The third area is associated with the use of information methods in linguistics, biology, psychology, sociology, pedagogy, etc. In linguistics, for example, the measurement of the informative capacity of languages was carried out. After statistical processing of a large number of texts performed using a computer, as well as comparison of the lengths of translations of the same text into different languages and numerous experiments on guessing letters of the text, it turned out that with a uniform load of speech units of information, the texts could be shortened by 4-5 times .
Thus, from this point of view, the fact of the abundance of natural languages was established, and its magnitude, which is approximately the same level in these languages, was measured quite accurately. In neurophysiology, information methods have helped to better understand the mechanism of action of the basic law of psychophysics - the Weber-Fechner law, which states that sensation is proportional to the logarithm of excitation. It is this dependence that should occur if nerve fibers that transmit signals from acceptors to the brain have properties inherent in the idealized communication channel that appears in theory I. The information approach played a significant role in genetics and molecular biology, allowing, in particular, to go deeper to recognize the role of RNA molecules as carriers of I. Research is also being conducted on the use of information methods in art history.

Such a diverse use of the concept of I. prompted some scientists to give it a general scientific significance. The founders of this general approach to the concept of I. were the English neurophysiologist U. R. Ashby and the French physicist L. Brillouin. They investigated the generality of the concept of entropy in the theory of thermodynamics and I., treating I. as negative entropy (negentropy). Brillouin and his followers began to study information processes from the angle of the second law of thermodynamics (See the second law of thermodynamics), considering the transfer of ion to a certain system as an improvement of this system, leading to a decrease in its entropy. In some philosophical works the thesis was put forward that I. is one of the basic universal properties of matter. The positive side of this approach is that it connects the concept of I. with the concept of reflection

News update 15.02.2020 (187)

The Pyrenees (endonyms: els Pirineus or el Pirineu in Catalan, Pyrénées in French, Pirenèus in Occitan, Pireneu in Aragonese, Pirinioak in Basque, Pirineos in Spanish) are a set of ranges (forming one mountain range) located at the north of the Iberian Peninsula and crossing the entire length of the isthmus that unites the Peninsula to the rest of Europe.

They extend from the Mediterranean Sea (Cap de Creus) on the east, to the Cantabrian Sea (Bay of Biscay) on the west; to the south, there is the depression of the Ebro and to the north the one of the Garonne.

The Pyrenees occupy the northern part of Catalonia, Aragon, Navarre and Basque Country; the southern parts of the North Basque Country (France) and Occitania (Bearn, Gascunya, and Languedoc); the west and south parts of northern Catalonia (France); and the whole of Andorra. The border between France and Spain mostly follows the Pyrenees. The Basque Country and Catalonia are located respectively at the west and east end of the mountain range.

The range is about 425 km long and has a width that generally does not exceed 100 km, with a total area of 19,000 km². The five highest peaks in the mountain chain are the Aneto (3,404 m), the Pocets peak (3,375 m), the Monte Perdido (3,355 m) (cat. Mont Perdut), the Punta d’Astorg (3,355 m) and the Pic Maldito (3,350 m ).

Despite its unity as a massif, it is often convenient to divide the range into differentiated areas depending on the context. According to the slope: the northern or the southern slopes of the Pyrenees; to the territory, the Catalan, Occitan, Aragonese and Basque Pyrenees; or even region: Pirineu d’Aude, Pirineu de Girona, Pirineu de Navarra. On the other hand, it can be divided in terms of altitude: the Upper and Lower Pyrenees, the Pre-Pyrenees (the lowest mountain ranges around the massif itself), or more proportionally the eastern Pyrenees, the central Pyrenees and the western Pyrenees. Finally, it is divided into climate zones of the Atlantic Pyrenees and the Mediterranean Pyrenees.пиренейские-горы-fe4a814585fлучшие-автомобили-мира-с-жорди-виларо-bd193ba0dd68


Популярное в