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The third area is associated with the use of information methods in linguistics, biology, psychology, sociology, pedagogy, etc

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The third area is associated with the use of information methods in linguistics, biology, psychology, sociology, pedagogy, etcThe third area is associated with the use of information methods in linguistics, biology, psychology, sociology, pedagogy, etc. In linguistics, for example, the measurement of the informative capacity of languages was carried out.

After statistical processing of a large number of texts performed using a computer, as well as comparison of the lengths of translations of the same text into different languages and numerous experiments on guessing letters of the text, it turned out that with a uniform load of speech units of information, the texts could be shortened by 4-5 times . Thus, from this point of view, the fact of the abundance of natural languages was established, and its magnitude, which is approximately the same level in these languages, was measured quite accurately. In neurophysiology, information methods have helped to better understand the mechanism of action of the basic law of psychophysics - the Weber-Fechner law, which states that sensation is proportional to the logarithm of excitation. It is this dependence that should occur if nerve fibers that transmit signals from acceptors to the brain have properties inherent in the idealized communication channel that appears in theory I. The information approach played a significant role in genetics and molecular biology, allowing, in particular, to go deeper to recognize the role of RNA molecules as carriers of I. Research is also being conducted on the use of information methods in art history.

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Such a diverse use of the concept of I. prompted some scientists to give it a general scientific significance. The founders of this general approach to the concept of I. were the English neurophysiologist U. R. Ashby and the French physicist L. Brillouin. They investigated the generality of the concept of entropy in the theory of thermodynamics and I., treating I. as negative entropy (negentropy). Brillouin and his followers began to study information processes from the angle of the second law of thermodynamics (See the second law of thermodynamics), considering the transfer of ion to a certain system as an improvement of this system, leading to a decrease in its entropy. In some philosophical works the thesis was put forward that I. is one of the basic universal properties of matter. The positive side of this approach is that it connects the concept of I. with the concept of reflection


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Опубликовала , 21.10.2019 в 22:34
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